Accountability matters and is a reality in our work. We are accountable first and foremost to our learners. As a supporter of the purposeful use of technology and innovative practices, I had to illustrate how effective these strategies were at improving learning. Statements and claims didn’t cut it and this was more than fair. It was at this time where the term efficacy kept finding its way into the conversation and my head. In the real world of education efficacy matters and it is important that this is part of the larger conversation when it comes to digital. It is a word that, in my opinion, has to be a part of our daily vocabulary and practice. Simply put, efficacy is the degree to which desired outcomes and goals are achieved. Applying this concept to digital learning can go a long way to solidifying the use of technology as an established practice, not just a frill or add-on.
The journey to efficacy begins and ends with the intended goal in mind and a strong pedagogical foundation. Adding technology or new ideas without this in place will more than likely not result in achieving efficacy. The Rigor Relevance Framework provides schools and educators with a checks and balance system by providing a common language for all, creating a culture around a common vision, and establishing a critical lens through which to examine curriculum, instruction, and assessment. It represents a means to support innovative learning and digital practice as detailed in the description of Quad D learning:
Students have the competence to think in complex ways and to apply their knowledge and skills they have acquired. Even when confronted with perplexing unknowns, students are able to use extensive knowledge and skill to create solutions and take action that further develops their skills and knowledge.
Aligning digital to Quad D not only makes sense but also melds with a great deal of the conversation in digital and non-digital spaces as to why and how learning should change. A framework like this emphasizes the importance of a strong pedagogical foundation while helping to move practice from isolated pockets of excellence to systemic elements that are scaled throughout the learning culture. It also provides the means to evaluate and reflect in order to improve.
Once an overall vision for digital learning is firmly in place you can begin to work on the structures and supports to ensure success. This brings me back to efficacy. The why is great, but the how and what have to be fleshed out. Determining whether technology or innovative practices, in general, are effective matters. Below I will highlight 5 key areas (essential questions, research, practicality, evidence/accountability, reflection) that can put your classroom, school, district, or organization on a path to digital efficacy.
Questions provide context for where we want to go, how we’ll get there, and whether or not success is achieved. Having more questions than answers is a natural part of the initial change process. Over time, however, concrete answers can illustrate that efficacy in digital learning has been achieved in some form or another. Consider how you might respond to the questions below:
- What evidence do we have to demonstrate the impact of technology on school culture?
- How are we making learning relevant for our students?
- How do we implement and support rigorous and relevant learning tasks that help students become Future Ready?
- What is required to create spaces that model real-world environments and learning opportunities?
- What observable evidence can be used to measure the effect technology is having on student learning and achievement?
- How can targeted feedback be provided to our teachers and students, so that technology can enhance learning?
Research is prevalent in education for a reason. It provides us all with a baseline as to what has been found to really work when it comes to student learning. Now, there is good research and bad. I get that. It is up to us as educators to sift through and then align the best and most practical studies out there to support the need to transform learning in the digital age. We can look to the past in order to inform current practice. For example, so many of us are proponents of student ownership, project-based, and collaborative learning. Not only does digital support and enhance all of these, but research from Dewey, Vygotsky, Piaget, Papert, Bloom, and many others provide validation. See the image below. For more on authorship learning click HERE.
One of the main reasons Tom Murray and I wrote Learning Transformed was to provide a sound research base that supports digital learning and the embracement of innovative practices. The research of Linda Darling Hammond found that technology can have the most impact on our at-risk learners when it is used to support interactive learning, explore and create rather than to “drill and kill”, and constitutes the right blend of teachers and technology. This is just one of over 100 studies we highlight. Then there is the comprehensive analysis by John Hattie on effect size – a listing of the most effective instructional strategies that improve student learning outcomes all of which can be applied to digital learning. If efficacy is the goal, embracing a scholarly mindset to inform and influence our work, not drive it, is critical.
All of what we do should align to the demands, and at times constraints, of the job. This includes preparing students for success on standardized tests. If it’s not practical, the drive to implement new ideas and practices wanes or never materializes. The creation of rigorous digital performance tasks that are aligned to standards and the scope and sequence found in the curriculum is just good practice. All good performance tasks include some form of assessment, either formative or summative, that provides the learner and educator with valuable information on standard and outcome attainment. Again, this is just part of the job.
The Rigor Relevance Framework assists in creating performance tasks that engage learners in critical thinking and problem solving while applying what they have learned in meaningful ways. There is also natural alignment to incorporating student agency. This is exactly what so many of us are championing. My colleague and good friend, Weston Kieschnick, has created a template that combines research and the practical aspect of performance task creation to assist you in creating your own. Check it out HERE. You can use the template and go through the process of developing a rigorous digital performance task or just use it to inform as you design your own.
Evidence and Accountability
As many of you know I do not shy away from openly discussing how important this area is. Just go back to my opening paragraph in this post for a refresher. Evidence and accountability are a part of every profession and quite frankly we need more of both in education to not only show efficacy in our work but to also scale needed change. Not everything has to or can be, measured. However, focusing on a Return on Instruction allows everyone to incorporate multiple measures, both qualitative and quantitative, to determine if improvement is in fact occurring.
When it is all said and done the most important thing we can all do is constantly reflect on our practice. In terms of efficacy in digital learning consider these reflective questions from your particular lens:
- Did my students learn?
- How do I know if my students learned?
- How do others know if my students learned?
- What can be done to improve?
- What point of view have I not considered?
Amazing things are happening in education, whether it be through digital learning or the implementation of innovative ideas. We must always push ourselves to be better and strive for continuous improvement. The more we all push each other on the topic of efficacy, our collective goals we have for education, learning, and leadership can be achieved.